Cryptocurrency Glossary

0-confirmation Transaction
A transaction that has been broadcasted to the network but hasn’t yet been confirmed in a block, potentially vulnerable to double-spending attacks.
0x (Zero Ex)
An open protocol that facilitates the decentralized exchange of Ethereum-based tokens and assets directly on the Ethereum blockchain.
24/7 Trading:
The characteristic of cryptocurrency markets to operate continuously, without closing hours, allowing trading at any time of day or night.
2FA (Two-Factor Authentication)
A security measure requiring two forms of verification to access an account or perform transactions is often used in cryptocurrency wallets and exchanges.
3rd Party Risk
The risk associated with relying on third-party services such as exchanges or wallets for storing or transacting cryptocurrencies.
404 Coin
A humorous term referring to a non-existent or worthless cryptocurrency, often used to mock new or obscure coins with little value or purpose.
51% Attack
A scenario where a single entity or group controls the majority of the mining power on a blockchain network, allowing them to manipulate transactions or double-spend coins. This undermines the decentralization and security of the network.
AML (Anti-Money Laundering)
AML refers to regulations and practices aimed at preventing the use of cryptocurrencies for money laundering, terrorism financing, and other illicit activities.
API (Application Programming Interface)
APIs are sets of rules and protocols that enable different software applications to communicate with each other. In the context of cryptocurrency and blockchain, APIs are crucial for accessing and interacting with blockchain networks, exchanges, wallets, and other services.
ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit)
ASICs are specialized hardware devices designed for a specific task, such as mining cryptocurrencies. Unlike general-purpose CPUs or GPUs, ASICs are optimized for efficiency and performance in performing complex calculations required for cryptocurrency mining.
A cryptocurrency address is a unique identifier used to send and receive digital currencies. It consists of a string of alphanumeric characters and serves as a destination for transactions on the blockchain.
A cryptocurrency airdrop is a marketing strategy used by blockchain projects to distribute free tokens to a large number of users. Airdrops can be used to promote awareness, reward loyal community members, or incentivize participation in specific activities.
An algorithm is a set of rules or instructions used by computers to perform specific tasks or solve problems. In the context of cryptocurrency and blockchain, algorithms play a central role in various processes such as mining, consensus mechanisms, encryption, and smart contract execution.
Any cryptocurrency other than Bitcoin. Altcoins typically present themselves as alternatives or improvements to Bitcoin, offering different features or use cases. Examples include Ethereum, Litecoin, and Ripple.
Anonymity refers to the state of being unidentifiable or untraceable in cryptocurrency transactions. While blockchain transactions are pseudonymous, meaning they are linked to cryptographic addresses rather than real-world identities.
Arbitrage is the practice of exploiting price differences for the same asset across different markets to generate profit. In the context of cryptocurrency, arbitrage opportunities often arise due to variations in prices on different exchanges or trading pairs.
Atomic Swap
Atomic swaps are peer-to-peer transactions that enable the exchange of different cryptocurrencies directly between two parties without the need for intermediaries or centralized exchanges. These swaps occur instantly and securely through smart contracts.
BIP (Bitcoin Improvement Proposal)
A design document for introducing new features or changes to the Bitcoin protocol.
Bear Market
A period of declining prices and pessimism in the financial markets, characterized by decreasing demand and negative sentiment.
A peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol that enables users to distribute large files efficiently across the internet.
The first and most well-known cryptocurrency, created by an anonymous person or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto.
Distributed ledger technology that stores transaction records across multiple computers in a decentralized manner. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, creating a chain of blocks, hence the name.
A method of storing cryptocurrency private keys in the form of a memorable passphrase or seed phrase.
Bug Bounty
A program that rewards individuals for discovering and reporting vulnerabilities or bugs in software or systems.
Bull Market
A period of rising prices and investor optimism, characterized by increasing demand and positive sentiment.
Byzantine Fault Tolerance
A property of blockchain networks that enables them to reach consensus even in the presence of faulty nodes or malicious actors.
Centralized Exchange
A cryptocurrency exchange platform that operates with a central authority, holding users’ funds and executing trades on their behalf.
A unit of digital currency on a blockchain network, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Litecoin.
Cold Storage
A method of storing cryptocurrency offline, typically on hardware wallets or paper wallets, to protect against hacking and theft.
The process of validating and adding a transaction to the blockchain ledger, typically done by miners through solving cryptographic puzzles.
Agreement among participants in a blockchain network on the validity of transactions and the state of the ledger.
The practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, often facilitated through cryptocurrency tokens or coins.
Digital or virtual currencies that use cryptography for security and operate on decentralized networks based on blockchain technology. Cryptocurrencies allow secure, anonymous transactions and are not controlled by any central authority like traditional currencies.
The practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties, integral to the security of blockchain networks.
Unauthorized use of a person’s computer or device to mine cryptocurrency, often done through malware or malicious software.
Custodial Wallet
A type of cryptocurrency wallet where a third party holds and manages the private keys on behalf of the user, often used in exchanges.
DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization
An organization represented by rules encoded as a computer program that is transparent, controlled by its members, and not influenced by a central authority.
Dapp (Decentralized Application)
A software application that runs on a decentralized network, typically a blockchain, with no single point of control or failure.
The distribution of control and decision-making across a network rather than relying on a single central authority. In the context of cryptocurrencies and blockchain, decentralization ensures that no single entity has control over the network, enhancing security and trust.
Defi (Decentralized Finance)
A movement that aims to create an open, permissionless, and transparent financial system using blockchain technology, enabling activities like lending, borrowing, and trading without intermediaries.
Digital Signature
A cryptographic technique used to verify the authenticity and integrity of digital messages or documents, commonly used in blockchain transactions to prove ownership.
Distributed Ledger
A type of database that is spread across multiple sites, countries, or institutions, enabling decentralized and transparent record-keeping.
Double Spending
The act of spending the same cryptocurrency tokens more than once, which is prevented in blockchain networks through consensus mechanisms.
Dust Coin
It may refer to a small amount of cryptocurrency, often considered insignificant due to its low value. These small amounts of cryptocurrency are sometimes referred to as “dust” because they can clutter wallets and transaction histories. Some users choose to ignore or consolidate dust amounts to keep their accounts tidy.
Dust Transaction
A very small amount of cryptocurrency in a transaction that is usually disregarded due to its negligible value, often used to spam or clutter the network.
A technical standard used for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, governing the creation and operation of tokens.
Elliptic Curve Cryptography
A type of asymmetric cryptography used in blockchain networks to create digital signatures and ensure secure transactions.
The process of generating new units of a cryptocurrency, typically through mining or staking, to reward participants for securing the network.

The process of encoding information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it, crucial for securing transactions and data on blockchain networks.
A financial arrangement where a third party holds and regulates payment of funds or assets between two parties in a transaction until the completion of the agreement.
A decentralized, open-source blockchain system that features smart contract functionality. It enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications (DApps) and is a major player in the cryptocurrency space.
A platform or marketplace where users can buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrencies for other digital assets or fiat currencies.
Expiry Date
The date or time when a particular transaction or smart contract condition becomes invalid or expires, commonly used in time-sensitive transactions or options contracts.
A web-based tool or application that allows users to view and search the contents of a blockchain, including transaction history, block details, and network statistics.
Exponential Growth
A rapid and accelerating increase in the value or adoption of a cryptocurrency or blockchain technology, often characterized by geometric progression.
FOMO (Fear of Missing Out)
The anxiety or apprehension that an opportunity may be missed, leading to impulsive decisions, particularly in investment or trading contexts.
FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt)
Disinformation or negative sentiment spread to create fear and uncertainty in the cryptocurrency market, often to manipulate prices or sentiment.
The charges or costs associated with cryptocurrency transactions, typically paid to miners or validators for processing and confirming transactions on the blockchain network.
Fiat Currency
Government-issued currency that is not backed by a physical commodity but rather by the issuing government’s guarantee of its value.
Fiat Gateway
A service or platform that enables the conversion of fiat currency into cryptocurrencies and vice versa, facilitating access to the cryptocurrency market for users.
Fiat-to-Crypto Exchange
A cryptocurrency exchange that allows users to buy, sell, or trade cryptocurrencies using fiat currencies like USD, EUR, or GBP.
Flash Crash
A sudden and significant drop in the price of a cryptocurrency or other asset, often occurring within a short period and quickly recovering.
A change or divergence in the protocol of a blockchain network results in two separate versions of the blockchain. Forks can be soft forks (backwards-compatible) or hard forks (not backwards-compatible) and can occur due to disagreements or updates in the network.
GPU (Graphics Processing Unit)
A type of hardware used in cryptocurrency mining, particularly for proof-of-work consensus algorithms, offering high computational power.
In the context of blockchain networks like Ethereum, gas refers to the fee required to execute a transaction or smart contract on the network. Gas is paid in the cryptocurrency native to the network (e.g., Ether for Ethereum) and is used to compensate miners for the computational resources required to process the transaction.
Gas Limit
The maximum amount of gas that can be spent on executing a transaction or smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain.
Genesis Block
The first block in a blockchain, which serves as the foundation of the entire blockchain network and contains unique information or data.
A web-based platform for version control and collaboration on software development projects, widely used by cryptocurrency and blockchain developers.
Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency
A type of cryptocurrency that is backed by physical gold reserves, offering stability and value pegged to the price of gold.
The process by which decisions are made and implemented within a blockchain network, often involving stakeholders and consensus mechanisms.
A blockchain protocol that aims to improve scalability and efficiency by compressing block data and reducing network bandwidth requirements.
Green Mining
Mining cryptocurrencies using renewable energy sources or energy-efficient technologies to minimize environmental impact.
A denomination of the cryptocurrency Ethereum, equal to 0.000000001 Ether, commonly used to denote gas prices or transaction fees.
A term derived from a misspelling of “hold,” used in the cryptocurrency community to encourage holding onto assets rather than selling, especially during market downturns.
An individual or group of individuals who use unauthorized access to computer systems or networks to exploit vulnerabilities or steal sensitive information, posing a security risk to cryptocurrency users and platforms.
An event in the Bitcoin protocol that reduces the reward given to miners for validating transactions by half, occurring approximately every four years to control the supply of new bitcoins.
Hard Fork
A permanent divergence from the existing blockchain protocol, resulting in two separate versions of the blockchain, often due to disagreements over updates or changes.
Hardware Wallet
A physical device designed to securely store private keys and cryptocurrencies offline, providing enhanced security compared to software wallets.
Hash Function
A mathematical function that converts input data into a fixed-size string of bytes, typically used in cryptography. In blockchain, hash functions are used to secure and validate transactions, as well as to create the cryptographic links between blocks.
Hash Rate
The measurement of the computational power of a cryptocurrency network, representing the number of calculations performed per second by miners.
The process of applying a hash function to input data to produce a fixed-size output, used to secure and verify transactions and blocks in a blockchain network.
Hybrid Blockchain
A blockchain that combines elements of both public and private blockchains, offering features such as transparency, security, and control over data access.
An open-source blockchain project hosted by the Linux Foundation, providing tools and frameworks for developing enterprise-grade blockchain solutions.
ICO (Initial Coin Offering)
A fundraising method used by cryptocurrency startups to raise capital. In an ICO, investors purchase newly issued tokens in exchange for established cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Ethereum. It’s a way for startups to crowdfund their projects and for investors to get in early on potentially lucrative ventures.
ICO Whitelis
A list of individuals or entities who are allowed to participate in an initial coin offering (ICO) or token sale, often requiring registration or verification.
IPFS (Inter Planetary File System)
A distributed protocol for storing and sharing hypermedia content on a peer-to-peer network, sometimes used in conjunction with blockchain technology for decentralized file storage.
A characteristic of blockchain technology that refers to data or records being unchangeable and resistant to tampering once they are recorded on the blockchain.
Immutable Ledger
A record-keeping system, such as a blockchain, where transactions are permanently recorded and cannot be altered or deleted, ensuring transparency and data integrity.
Inflationary Cryptocurrency
A type of cryptocurrency with a monetary policy that increases the supply of tokens over time, potentially leading to devaluation.
Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)
A fundraising method similar to an ICO, where new cryptocurrency tokens or coins are sold directly through a cryptocurrency exchange platform.
Instant Send
A feature in some cryptocurrency networks that allows for near-instantaneous transactions, typically achieved through off-chain solutions or specialized consensus mechanisms.
Internet of Things (IoT)
A network of interconnected devices or objects that can communicate and exchange data, potentially incorporating blockchain technology for security and data integrity.
he ability of different blockchain networks or systems to communicate, exchange data, and operate together seamlessly.
Jupyter Notebook
Jupyter Notebook is an open-source web application that allows users to create and share documents containing live code, equations, visualizations, and narrative text. It is commonly used in the cryptocurrency and blockchain communities for data analysis, research, and educational purposes.
KYC (Know Your Customer)
KYC is a regulatory process used by financial institutions and cryptocurrency exchanges to verify the identity of their customers. KYC procedures typically involve collecting personal information and documentation to prevent money laundering, fraud, and other illicit activities.
Key Pair
A pair of cryptographic keys consisting of a public key and a private key used in asymmetric encryption and digital signatures to secure transactions and access cryptocurrency holdings.
Keystore File
A file format used to store encrypted private keys in cryptocurrency wallets, typically protected by a password, offering an additional layer of security for accessing cryptocurrency funds.
A term used to refer to cryptocurrency projects or platforms that focus on compliance with KYC (Know Your Customer) and AML (Anti-Money Laundering) regulations to ensure regulatory compliance.
A slang term used in the cryptocurrency community to refer to purchasing a Lamborghini, often used humorously to express the desire for wealth or success in trading.
Layer 2 Scalability
Scaling solutions built on top of a blockchain’s base layer, such as the Lightning Network or sidechains, to improve transaction throughput and reduce congestion on the main chain.
A ledger is a record-keeping system that tracks transactions and balances in a decentralized or centralized manner. In the context of blockchain, the ledger is distributed across multiple nodes, ensuring transparency and immutability of transaction history.
Lightning Network
A second-layer protocol built on top of a blockchain, such as Bitcoin or Litecoin, designed to facilitate faster and cheaper transactions through off-chain payment channels.
Limit Order
A type of order placed by a trader to buy or sell an asset at a specific price or better, only executing when the market price reaches the specified level.
The degree to which an asset or market can be quickly bought or sold without significantly impacting its price, essential for efficient trading and price stability in cryptocurrency markets.
Liquidity Pool
A supply of funds locked in a smart contract or protocol used to facilitate decentralized trading, lending, or liquidity provision in decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms.
Long Position
A trading strategy where an investor buys an asset in anticipation of its price increasing over time, allowing them to profit from the appreciation of the asset’s value.
Loss Aversion
A behavioral bias where individuals prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains, influencing decision-making in cryptocurrency trading and investment strategies.
The main blockchain network where transactions are permanently recorded and validated, as opposed to testnets or alternative networks used for development and testing.
Margin Trading
Trading with borrowed funds, allowing traders to leverage their positions and potentially amplify profits (or losses) based on the price movements of an asset.
Market Cap (Market Capitalization)
The total value of a cryptocurrency, calculated by multiplying its current price by the total supply of coins or tokens in circulation.
Market Order
A type of order placed by a trader to buy or sell an asset at the current market price, executing immediately at the best available price.
A short-term memory pool on a blockchain network where unconfirmed transactions are temporarily stored before being included in a block by miners.
Merkle Tree
A data structure used in blockchain technology to efficiently verify the integrity of large sets of data, organizing transactions into a hierarchical tree structure.
A popular browser extension and cryptocurrency wallet that allows users to interact with decentralized applications (Dapps) on the Ethereum blockchain and store Ethereum-based tokens.
A small financial transaction typically involving tiny amounts of cryptocurrency, often used for online purchases, micropayments, or tipping content creators.
The process of validating and adding new transactions to a blockchain by solving complex mathematical puzzles. Miners compete to solve these puzzles using computational power, and the first one to solve it successfully adds a new block to the blockchain and receives a reward in the form of cryptocurrency. Mining is crucial for the security and integrity of blockchain networks.
Multi-Signature (Multisig)
A security feature that requires multiple private keys to authorize a transaction, providing additional layers of protection against unauthorized access to cryptocurrency funds.
NFT (Non-Fungible Token)
A unique digital asset stored on a blockchain, representing ownership of a specific item, artwork, or collectible, often used in digital art, gaming, and entertainment industries.
A term often used to refer to the mysterious and pseudonymous creator(s) of Bitcoin, known only by the online alias Satoshi Nakamoto.
Nakamoto Consensus
The consensus mechanism used in Bitcoin and other proof-of-work blockchain networks, named after Bitcoin’s pseudonymous creator, Satoshi Nakamoto.
Native Token
The primary cryptocurrency or token native to a blockchain platform, used for transactions, governance, and incentivizing network participants.
Network Upgrade
A planned change or improvement to a blockchain protocol or network, typically implemented through a software update or hard fork to introduce new features or enhance performance.
A computer or device that participates in the blockchain network by maintaining a copy of the entire blockchain and validating transactions. Nodes can be full nodes, which store the entire blockchain and participate in the consensus process, or lightweight nodes, which rely on full nodes for transaction verification.
A random number used in the mining process to generate a valid hash for a new block, ensuring that each block’s hash meets the target difficulty set by the network.
Nondeterministic Wallet
A type of cryptocurrency wallet that generates new addresses and private keys randomly, making it difficult to predict or reproduce wallet addresses.
OTC (Over-the-Counter)
A method of trading cryptocurrencies directly between two parties without the involvement of an exchange, often used for large trades or illiquid assets.
Activities or transactions that occur outside of the blockchain network, typically involving intermediary layers or protocols for scalability, privacy, or efficiency.
Activities or transactions that occur directly on the blockchain network, recorded and validated by network participants, ensuring transparency and immutability.
Open Source
Software or technology that is freely available for anyone to use, modify, and distribute, often associated with transparency, collaboration, and community-driven development.
Opt-In RBF (Replace-by-Fee)
A feature in some cryptocurrency wallets that allows users to increase the transaction fee or replace an unconfirmed transaction with a higher fee to expedite confirmation.
In the context of blockchain and smart contracts, an oracle is a third-party service or mechanism that provides external data to the blockchain. Oracles are used to trigger smart contract execution based on real-world events or conditions, enabling blockchain applications to interact with off-chain data.
Order Book
A list of buy and sell orders for a particular cryptocurrency or trading pair on an exchange, showing the quantity and price of each order.
Orphaned Transaction
A transaction that is not included in a valid block on the blockchain due to being rejected by miners or not meeting the network’s consensus rules.
Paper Wallet
A physical document or storage medium that contains a cryptocurrency user’s private and public keys, often used as a secure method for offline storage of digital assets.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
A decentralized communication model where participants interact directly with each other without intermediaries, commonly used in cryptocurrency transactions and file sharing.
Private Key
A secret cryptographic key that allows a user to access and control their cryptocurrency holdings. It is paired with a public key to create a digital signature for transactions, providing secure ownership and transfer of cryptocurrencies.
Proof of Stake (PoS
A consensus mechanism used in blockchain networks, where validators are chosen to create new blocks based on the amount of cryptocurrency they hold and are willing to “stake” as collateral.
Proof of Work (PoW)
A consensus mechanism used in blockchain networks, where miners compete to solve complex mathematical puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks.
A set of rules and standards governing the behavior and interactions of participants in a blockchain network, ensuring consistency, security, and interoperability.
Public Key
A cryptographic key used in asymmetric encryption that allows recipients to verify signatures and encrypt messages intended for the owner of the corresponding private key.
Pump and Dump
A fraudulent scheme where the price of a cryptocurrency is artificially inflated (“pumped”) through coordinated buying, followed by selling off (“dumping”) to unsuspecting investors at a higher price.
QR Code
A two-dimensional barcode that contains information, often used to represent cryptocurrency addresses for easy scanning and transaction initiation. QR codes are commonly used in mobile wallets and payment systems to facilitate cryptocurrency transactions.
Quadratic Funding
A mechanism used in decentralized funding platforms to allocate resources based on the preferences and contributions of participants, promoting fairness and community support.
ROI (Return on Investment)
A financial metric used to evaluate the profitability of an investment relative to its cost, often used by cryptocurrency investors to assess the performance of their holdings.
Ransomware is a type of malicious software that encrypts a victim’s files or data and demands payment (often in cryptocurrency) for their release. Ransomware attacks have targeted individuals, businesses, and even government entities, highlighting the importance of cybersecurity measures in the cryptocurrency space.
Recovery Phrase
Also known as a seed phrase or mnemonic phrase, a sequence of words used to restore access to a cryptocurrency wallet or private keys in case of loss or hardware failure.
Governmental rules, laws, and policies governing the use, trade, and taxation of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology, aimed at protecting investors and ensuring market stability.
The ability of a blockchain network to withstand and recover from disruptions, attacks, or failures, ensuring continuity and reliability of operations.
In the context of blockchain networks, incentives given to participants, such as miners or validators, for contributing resources, securing the network, or validating transactions.
Risk Management
The process of identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks associated with cryptocurrency investments, trading, or blockchain projects to minimize potential losses.
The smallest unit of Bitcoin, named after the pseudonymous creator of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto, often used to represent 0.00000001 BTC.
The ability of a blockchain network to handle increasing transaction volumes and user activity without compromising performance, speed, or decentralization.
Security Token
A type of cryptocurrency that represents ownership or investment in real-world assets, such as equity, real estate, or commodities, offering regulatory compliance and investor protection.
Seed Phrase
A sequence of words used to generate a cryptographic key pair for a cryptocurrency wallet, serving as a backup and recovery mechanism in case of loss or hardware failure.
SegWit (Segregated Witness)
A protocol upgrade implemented on the Bitcoin blockchain to increase transaction capacity and reduce fees by separating transaction signature data from transaction data.
A separate blockchain that is connected to a parent blockchain through two-way pegging, allowing for the creation of new features, scalability solutions, or interoperability between different blockchain networks.
Smart Contract
Self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement written into code. Smart contracts automatically enforce and execute the terms of the contract when predefined conditions are met, eliminating the need for intermediaries and enhancing transparency and efficiency.
Smart Contract
Self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code on the blockchain, automatically executing actions when predefined conditions are met.
Soft Fork
A soft fork in the context of blockchain technology refers to a backward-compatible update or change to the protocol rules governing the validation and consensus mechanisms of a blockchain network. Unlike a hard fork, which creates a permanent divergence in the blockchain, a soft fork allows for a seamless transition where non-upgraded nodes can still recognize and validate new blocks.
A type of cryptocurrency designed to maintain a stable value by pegging its price to a fiat currency, commodity, or algorithmic mechanism, reducing volatility and facilitating use in everyday transactions.
The process of participating in proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain networks by holding and locking up cryptocurrency tokens as collateral to validate transactions and secure the network, earning rewards in return.
A separate blockchain network used for testing and experimentation purposes, allowing developers to deploy and test applications without risking real funds or affecting the main network.
A digital asset issued on a blockchain represents ownership of a specific asset or utility within a decentralized application (Dapp). Tokens can represent a variety of assets, such as cryptocurrencies, real estate, or digital collectibles, and are often used in crowdfunding or decentralized governance.
The process of converting real-world assets or rights into digital tokens on a blockchain, enabling fractional ownership, liquidity, and transferability of assets such as real estate, stocks, and intellectual property.
The study of the economic principles and mechanisms governing the creation, distribution, and utilization of tokens within a blockchain ecosystem, including factors such as supply, demand, and incentives.
Trading Pair
A pair of cryptocurrencies or fiat currencies that can be traded against each other on a cryptocurrency exchange, representing the base currency and the quote currency.
A transfer of cryptocurrency between two parties recorded on a blockchain ledger, typically involving the transfer of funds or the execution of a smart contract.
Transaction Fee
A small amount of cryptocurrency paid by users to miners or validators as compensation for processing and validating transactions on a blockchain network.
Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)
A security measure that requires users to provide two forms of identification to access their cryptocurrency accounts or wallets, typically a password and a unique code sent to a mobile device.
Unconfirmed Transaction
A transaction that has been broadcasted to the network but has not yet been included in a block and confirmed by miners, remaining in the mempool until it is processed.
Underlying Asset
The real-world asset or commodity that a cryptocurrency or token represents ownership of, such as gold, real estate, or fiat currency, backing its value and providing intrinsic worth.
Utility Token
A type of cryptocurrency token that provides access to a specific product or service within a decentralized application (DApp). Utility tokens are not designed as investments but rather as a means of accessing and utilizing the features of the underlying platform.
A participant in a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain network responsible for validating transactions, securing the network, and proposing new blocks, typically based on the amount of cryptocurrency they hold and are willing to stake as collateral.
Venture Capital
Funding provided by investors or venture capital firms to support the development and growth of startups and projects in the cryptocurrency and blockchain industry.
The process of confirming the accuracy, authenticity, and validity of transactions or information recorded on a blockchain network, typically performed by network participants such as miners, validators, or nodes.
Virtual Machine
A software-based emulation of a physical computer system that can execute smart contracts and decentralized applications (Dapps) on a blockchain network, providing a secure and deterministic execution environment.
Volatility refers to the degree of variation or fluctuation in the price of a cryptocurrency over time. Cryptocurrencies are known for their high volatility, with prices often experiencing rapid and unpredictable changes due to factors such as market demand, investor sentiment, and regulatory developments.
The total amount of cryptocurrency traded within a specific period, typically measured in terms of the number of coins or tokens exchanged, reflecting the level of market activity and liquidity.
Voting Power
The influence or weight assigned to participants in a blockchain network’s governance system, typically based on factors such as stakeholding, reputation, or contribution to the network.
A digital tool or application used to store, manage, and transact cryptocurrencies. Wallets can be software-based (hot wallets) or hardware-based (cold wallets), and they provide users with access to their cryptocurrency holdings through private keys.
Wallet Recovery Service
A service offered to cryptocurrency users to help recover lost or inaccessible funds due to forgotten passwords, hardware failure, or other issues, often involving sophisticated cryptographic techniques.
A vision for the future of the internet where decentralized technologies, including blockchain and cryptocurrencies, enable peer-to-peer interactions, data ownership, and privacy without relying on central authorities.
A term used to describe individuals or entities that hold large amounts of cryptocurrencies, capable of exerting significant influence over market prices and trends through their trading activities.
A technical document or report that outlines the concept, technology, and implementation details of a cryptocurrency project, serving as a roadmap and informational resource for investors and developers.
In the context of blockchain, a participant who provides cryptographic evidence or attestation to validate the authenticity and integrity of transactions or data on the network.
Wrapped Token
A tokenized representation of an asset, such as fiat currency or another cryptocurrency, pegged to its value and compatible with a specific blockchain network through a wrapping process.
X11 Algorithm
A cryptographic hashing algorithm used in some proof-of-work cryptocurrencies, such as Dash (formerly Darkcoin), known for its energy efficiency and resistance to specialized mining hardware.
XRP is a cryptocurrency used in Ripple’s payment protocol, designed for fast and low-cost cross-border transactions. Unlike Bitcoin, which relies on proof-of-work mining, XRP is pre-mined, and transactions are confirmed through a consensus protocol, making it more energy-efficient.
Yield Aggregator
Platforms or protocols in decentralized finance (DeFi) that aggregate liquidity from multiple sources to optimize yield generation for users, often utilizing automated strategies and smart contract technology.
Yield Farming
A strategy in decentralized finance (DeFi) where users provide liquidity to liquidity pools and earn rewards in the form of additional tokens or interest. Yield farming typically involves lending or staking cryptocurrencies to earn yield on invested assets.
hardware-based authentication device used to secure cryptocurrency wallets and accounts by providing two-factor authentication (2FA) and cryptographic key storage.
Zero Confirmation Transaction
A transaction that has been broadcasted to the network but has not yet been confirmed by miners or included in a block, carrying some risk of double spending until it receives adequate confirmations.
Zero-Knowledge Proof
A cryptographic method that allows one party to prove to another party that they possess certain information without revealing the actual information itself. Zero-knowledge proofs are used to enhance privacy and security in blockchain transactions, enabling verification without disclosing sensitive data.
Zombie Chain
A colloquial term used to describe a blockchain network or cryptocurrency project that has become inactive, abandoned, or obsolete due to lack of development, community support, or utility.

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